Political Dynasties, Term Limits and Female Political Empowerment: Evidence from the Philippines


  • NBER Working Papers


  • We investigate the effect of term limits on female political representation. Using data from Philippine municipalities where strict term limits have been in place since 1987, we show that term limits led to a large increase in the number of women running and winning in mayoral elections. However, we show that this increase is entirely driven by female relatives of the term-limited incumbents. We further show that the differential gender impact of this policy is driven by political dynasties' adaptive strategies to stay in power.

fecha de publicación

  • 2019


  • 26431